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Quakes & Plates
According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, which zone of the Earth has the greatest density?
c) Outer core
d) Inner core
According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, for the last 200 million years, continents on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean have
a) Been drifting closer together.
b) Been drifting farther apart.
c) Remained the same distance apart.
A seismographic station records a travel time difference of 3 minutes between P-waves and S-waves of an earthquake. Approximately how far is the seismic station from the epicenter of the earth-quake?
a) 1000 km
b) 1500 km
c) 3200 km
d) 4800 km
The temperature of the rock located 1000 kilometers below the Earth's surface is about
a) 1800 degrees C
b) 2100 degrees C
c) 3200 degrees C
d) 4100 degrees C
The composition of some meteorites supports the inference that the Earth's core is composed of
a) Aluminum and calcium
b) Iron and nickel
c) Silicon and oxygen
d) Magnesium and potassium
Igneous rock along mid-ocean ridges is younger than the igneous rock farther from the ridges. This evidence supports the theory that
a) The ocean floor is stable.
b) The ocean floor is spreading.
c) Volcanoes once existed on both sides of ocean ridges.
d) Ocean ridges are areas of subsidence.
At which location would seismic measurements indicate that the Earth's crust is thickest?
a) The Gulf of Mexico
b) The Mississippi Valley
c) The Rocky Mountains
d) Lake Erie
The time that an earthquake occurred can be inferred by knowing the
a) Arrival time of the P-waves.
b) Arrival time of the S-waves.
c) Distance between seismic stations.
d) Epicenter distance and arrival time of the P-waves.
Why do geologists infer that the Earth's outer core is a liquid?
a) S-waves travel faster than P-waves in the outer core.
b) S-waves do not pass through the outer core of the Earth.
c) Instruments indicate that the Earth's temperature increases with depth.
d) P-waves can pass through the outer core of the earth
At what type of plate boundary would the fault shown in the diagram be found?
a) A convergent boundary
b) A divergent boundary
c) A transform boundary
d) A subduction boundary
Which statement best describes the continental and oceanic crusts?
a) Continental crust is thicker and less dense than oceanic crust.
b) Continental crust is thicker and more dense than oceanic crust.
c) Continental crust is thinner and less dense than oceanic crust.
d) Continental crust is thinner and more dense than oceanic crust.
Most of the world's volcanoes are located in
a) Chains throughout the world.
b) The central regions of the continents
c) The centers of oceanic areas
d) Regions in the late stages of erosion
What earth features are represented by the gray areas in the diagram?
a) Mid-ocean ridges
b) Subduction zones
c) Hot spots
d) Convergent plate boundaries
Our present understanding of the nature of the Earth's interior is based primarily upon information obtained from
a) Magnetic field values obtained at the Earth's surface.
b) Seismic wave evidence from earthquakes.
c) Gravity field values obtained from satellites.
d) Density distributions inferred from the Earth's rotational properties.
Useful information regarding the composition of the interior of the Earth can be derived from earthquakes because earthquake waves
a) Travel through the Earth at a constant velocity.
b) Travel at different rates through different materials.
c) Release materials from within the Earth.
d) Have a constant amplitude.
According to the plate tectonic theory
a) Mid-ocean ridges have lower than normal heat flows.
b) Plates are destroyed at mid-ocean ridges.
c) Continents drift because they rest on plates that are moving.
d) Plate thickness equals the thickness of the crust and mantle combined.
The actual point along a fault where slippage occurs and causes an earthquake is called a (an)
At equal depths in the Earth, S-waves travel
a) Always faster than P-waves.
b) Always slower than P-waves.
c) Always at the same rate as P-waves.
d) Sometimes slower and sometimes faster than P-waves.
What kind of boundary is shown in the diagram?
a) A convergent plate boundary
b) A divergent plate boundary
c) A transform plate boundary
At which location in the diagram would the age of the sea-floor be greatest?
The sea floor rock at location B is approximately 80 million years old. At which other location could rock of similar age be found?
According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, if a seismograph station records a difference in arrival times between P-waves and S-waves of 4 minutes, how far away is the epicenter of the Earthquake?
a) 1000 Km.
b) 1900 Km.
c) 2600 Km.
d) 5200 Km.
Using the Richter scale of earthquake magnitude, each higher number represents how many more times as much energy than the preceding number?
Which evidence does NOT support the theory that Africa and South America were once part of the same large continent?
a) Correlation of rocks on opposite sides of the Altantic Ocean.
b) Correlation of fossils on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean.
c) Correlation of coastlines on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean.
d) Correlation of living animals on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean.
A state of balance may exist between continents and ocean basins. Any upset of this balance may cause the crust to move and readjust. The term most closely associated with this statement is
a) Continental drift
b) Convection cells or currents
Where do most earthquakes occur?
a) In the continental interiors
b) At the mantle-core boundary
c) Randomly over the Earth's surface
d) In specific earthquake belts within the crust
The time lapse between the arrival of P-waves and S-waves at one seismograph recording station can be used to determine the
a) Magnitude of the earthquake
b) Exact location of the epicenter
c) Exact depth of the earthquake
d) Distance to the epicenter
The term isostasy refers to a
a) Line of equal air pressure
b) A zone of earthquake activity
c) Deflection of winds on the Earth's surface caused by rotation
d) Condition of balance between segments of the Earth's crust
As the distance between an observer and an earthquake decreases, the difference in arrival times of P and S waves
c) Remains the same
Igneous materials found along ocean ridges contain magnetic iron particles that show reversal of magnetic orientation. This is evidence that
a) Volcanic activity has occurred constantly throughout history
b) The Earth's magnetic poles have reversed positions in the past
c) The Earth's crust does not move
d) Igneous materials are always formed beneath oceans
The density of the Earth's core would be most nearly the same as the density of
a) Ocean water (1.02 g/cm3)
b) A meteorite (11.20 g/cm3)
c) The Moon (3.36 g/cm3)
d) A granite rock (2.72 g/cm3)
Based on the Reference Tables, about how far away from the receiving station is the epicenter of an earthquake if the difference in arrival times of P-waves and S-waves is six minutes and thirty seconds?
a) 3000 Km.
b) 5000 Km.
c) 6300 Km.
d) 8000 Km.
An earthquake occurred at 5:00:00 A.M. At what time would the P-wave reach a seismic station 3000 kilometers from the epicenter?
a) 5:04:30 A.M.
b) 5:05:40 A.M.
c) 5:10:12 A.M.
d) 6:15:00 A.M.
The oceanic crust is thought to be composed mainly of
At what depth below the surface of the Earth is the temperature higher than the melting point of the rocks found at that depth?
a) 1200 Km.
b) 2000 Km
c) 3500 Km.
d) 6000 Km.
What is the pressure at the boundary between the mantle and the outer core?
a) 500,000 atmospheres
b) 1,000,000 atmospheres
c) 1,500,000 atmospheres
d) 3,200,000 atmospheres
According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, the temperature of the rock at a depth of 6000 Km. in the Earth is lower than the melting point of those rocks. This would indicate that
a) The Earth gets cooler at great depths
b) The pressure at this depth is less than the pressure at 5000 Km.
c) The rocks at this depth are liquid
d) The rocks at this depth are solid
The epicenter of an earthquake is located near Massena, New York. According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, the greatest difference in arrival times of P-waves and S-waves for this earthquake would be recorded in
a) Albany, N.Y.
b) Utica, N.Y.
c) Plattsburgh, N.Y.
d) Binghamton, N.Y.
According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, what is the relationship between density, temperature, and pressure inside the Earth as depth increases?
a) Density, temperature and pressure all decrease.
b) Density and temperature increase but pressure decreases.
c) Density increases but temperature and pressure increase.
d) Density, temperature and pressure all increase.
Compared to the continental crust of North America, the oceanic crust in the area of the Hawaiian Islands is probably
a) Thinner and similar in composition.
b) Thinner and different in composition.
c) Thicker and similar in composition.
d) Thicker and different in composition.
Which event provides direct evidence of crustal movement?
a) The erosion of the outside of a river curve.
b) The deposition of sediment in the ocean.
c) The displacement of rock strata during an earthquake.
d) The weathering of rock to form a residual soil.
Which statement about the Earth's mantle is best supported by data given in the Earth Science Reference Tables?
a) The density of the mantle is greatest 300 km below the surface.
b) The highest temperatures within the Earth occur in the mantle.
c) The greatest pressures within the Earth exist in the mantle.
d) At 300 km below the surface, the mantle is very near its melting point.
An abrupt change in the speed of seismic waves is an indication that the
a) Seismic waves are colliding
b) Shear wave has overtaken the compressional wave
c) Waves are going into a material with different properties
d) Waves are passing through material of the same destiny
It takes P waves 4 minutes to travel from the epicenter of an earthquake to a seismic station. How long will it take S waves from the same earthquake to reach that seismic station?
a) 2 minutes
b) 4 minutes
c) 7 minutes and 20 seconds
d) 12 minutes and 30 seconds
At which location in the diagram is new sea floor probably being created?
Which location in the diagram represents a region where sea floor is being subducted?
According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, approximately how far will a P-wave travel in eight minutes?
a) 2,200 Km
b) 4,800 Km
c) 6,500 Km
d) 11,200 Km
Following an earthquake, a seismograph station recorded the arrival of a P-waveat 3:09:30 a.m. and an S-wave at 3:14:00a.m. According to the Earth Science Reference tables, what is the distance from the seismic station to the epicenter of the earthquake
a) 1,200 km
b) 3,000 km
c) 6,100 km
d) 7,500 km
A seismograph station determines that its distance from the epicenter of an earthquake is 4000 kilometers. According to the Reference Tables, if the P-wave arrived at the station at 10:15 a.m., the time of the earthquakes's origin was
a) 10:02 a.m.
b) 10:08 a.m.
c) 10:10 a.m.
d) 10:22 a.m.
Two samples of ocean floor basaltic bedrock are found at equal distances from, and on opposite sides of, a mid-ocean ridge. The best evidence that both samples were formed at the ridge at the same time is that both samples also
a) Have the same density
b) Contain different crystal sizes
c) Are located at different depths below sea level
d) Have the same magnetic field orientation
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